Essential micronutrient required by plants in small quantities
Involved in enzyme reactions, chlorophyll production and the fixation of carbon dioxide
Deficiency symptoms include interveinal chlorosis and discoloured spots on younger leaves
Manganese losses are minimal due to its ability to bind to clay soil particles
Best applied to the soil at crop establishment to actively prevent manganese deficiencies
Wolf Trax manganese can be coated onto any one of Origins 13,000+ grades
Manganese is important for plant growth and development. It is the activator of many enzyme reactions involved in the production of lignin, amino acids and chlorophyll - the compound by which plants photosythesise.
It is also involved in nitrogen metabolism and in the fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by plants.
A lack of manganese within the plant (<25mg/kg) typically results in a reduction in dry matter yield and reduced tolerance to heat and drought stress.
Spring barley is particularly sensitive to manganese deficiency and therefore tends to be highly responsive when manganese is applied.
Like in plants, manganese is involved in several enzyme reactions within animals. It is involved in respiration, carbon and lipid metabolism, antioxidant activities and the immune system.
Lack of manganese within animals can result in skeletal abnormalities, defective growth and infertility, however the small amount of manganese required by ruminants is typically supplied by the forage without the need for supplementation.
Manganese is available for plant uptake in its ionic form (Mn2+). Its positive charge means it is able to bind to negatively charged clay particles within the soil, therefore soils with a high clay content tend to have higher levels of manganese.
Manganese oxides can form strong bonds with cobalt ions, making it unavailable for plant uptake. Therefore soils high in cobalt can induce manganese deficiency. Manganese also becomes less available at a high pH (<7) and so fields which have received large applications of lime can be vulnerable to deficiency.
Manganese deficiency is more prevalent in unconsolidated, fluffy seedbeds where there is little root to soil contact. Rolling fields soon after establishment can help mitigate this risk.
Plants deficient in manganese present with interveinal chlorosis (yellowing between leaf veins) and discoloured spots.
Reduced lignin formation may result in floppy plants and the onset of disease.
Fields which contain healthy looking plants on the tramline and unhealthy looking plants between tramlines are indicative of those affected by manganese deficiency, as poor soil consolidation is a contributing factor.
Where is the risk of deficiency highest?
Poor root to soil contact
High organic matter soils
Fields recently treated with lime
Soil with excessive levels of cobalt
Soil analysis is considered unreliable in determining soil manganese concentrations.
Tissue testing is also useful to determine the manganese concentration of the plant mid-season in order to compare against optimum levels. Although laboratory results may be available too late to correct the deficiency in the current crop, they can be useful for decisions on manganese use for future crops.
Manganese is less prone to leaching losses due to its positive charge and its ability to bind to clay particles. Losses will be greater in soils with a low clay content.
Coating fertiliser granules with Wolf Trax manganese means that there are around 50 more landing sites in comparison to the granular alternative, resulting in greater plant uptake.
In arable situations, applying manganese at crop establishment proactively prevents manganese deficiency.
Applying manganese to the foliage is often too late as plants have already lost yield potential. Applying manganese to the soil during establishment means there is no 'hunger gap' and helps build soil manganese reserves.
Using a Wolf Trax manganese coating means plant uptake is maximised and so only small rates of manganese are required.
Wolf Trax manganese
0.03 – 0.1% Mn as required
A dry dispersal powder which coats every granule of fertiliser. Contains both immediate and sustained release nutrition